COURSE DESCRIPTIONS AST/ASTL 103 Astronomy
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course is an introductory study of the structure of the universe from the Earth to the limit of the observable universe. Topics include stellar structure and evolution, the solar system, the Milky Way, galactic structure, and theories of the universe. Recent topics such as extraterrestrial life, neutron stars and pulsars, black holes, quasars, and background radiation are also discussed. Prerequisite: Completion of developmental skills courses
 
AST/ASTL 215 Space Science I
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This course covers the fundamental concepts in Space Science. Topics include: Newton's laws of motion and universal law of gravity, vector algebra; the solar system, celestial mechanics, comparative planetology: Earth-moon system, Terrestrial planets, Jovian planets, atmospheres and geology, small bodies, exploration and water-life, electromagnetic radiation and atomic structure, telescopes and detectors; the Sun: structure, solar magnetism and energy transformations: Earth-Sun connection and geospace. Part of the course may be held at the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History or the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Science. Pre/Co-requisite: MTH 202/Co-requisite: ASTL 215

AST/ASTL 216 Space Science II
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This course covers the fundamental concepts in Space Science. Topics include: Multiple wavelength astronomy: radio, infrared, optical, UV, x-ray and gamma ray; stars: energy transport, magnitude and distance modulus; variable and binary stars, Hertzsprung Russell diagram; interstellar medium, stellar structure and evolution; Milky Way galaxy: stellar distribution and population; galactic structure and evolution: active galaxies and quasars; Hubble's law; large scale structure of the universe: galaxy clusters and cosmology. Part of the course may be held at the Hayden Planetarium of the American Museum of Natural History or the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Science. Pre-requisite: MTH 202/Co-requisite: ASTL 216
 
AST 390 Advanced Topics in Space Science I
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course analyzes in depth contemporary topics in Space Science and is offered according to the latest developments in the field and the needs of the students. Students are taught the underlying principles of analysis, design, and implementation issues involved in Space Science. Several examples and applications, using NASA and other scientific data, illustrate the theory and concepts covered. A detailed description for each special topic offering may be obtained in the Department office prior to registration. Pre-requisite: AST 215 or AST 216 or permission of the chairperson/Pre/Co-requisite: MTH 202
 
CHM 104 Chemistry and Our World
4 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hours
 
This is an introductory chemistry course intended for non-science majors. It will introduce students to the basic concepts of chemistry with an emphasis on the role the subject plays in the world around us and in the service of man. Pre-requisite: None
 
CHM/CHML 105 Chemistry for Health Professionals I
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 Lab hours
 
An introductory course for the health professional student covering the fundamentals of general and organic chemistry with applications in biological sciences. Topics include the structure, properties, and states of matter, chemistry bonding and reactions, chemistry of solutions, and the chemistry of major groups of organic compounds. This is not the Pre-requisite for organic chemistry. Pre-requisites: Completion of all developmental skills courses/Co-requisite: CHML 105
 
CHM 112 Basic Chemistry
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
An introductory course designed for students who plan further study in chemistry. The course presents those areas of chemistry which are essential and which students find most difficult in general college chemistry. These include the mole concept, nomenclature, stoichiometric calculations, gas laws, and solution concentration calculations. Co-requisite: MTH 136 or MTH 138
 
CHM/CHML/CHMW 201 General Chemistry I
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
An introduction to the basic principles and theories of chemistry including atomic theory, laws of chemical combination, periodic classification of the elements, states of matter, and kinetic molecular theory. The aim of classroom and laboratory work is to prepare the student for advanced study in chemistry. Co-requisite: CHML 201/ Pre-requisite: None
 
CHM/CHML/CHMW 202 General Chemistry II
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
A continuation of CHM 201. Topics include the study of liquids, solids and solutions, chemical kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, thermodynamics and electrochemistry. Pre-requisite: CHM 201/Corequisite: CHML 202 and CHMW 202/Pre/Co-requisite: MTH 151
 
CHM/CHML/CHMW 303 Organic Chemistry I
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
The structure, preparation and properties of organic compounds with emphasis on reactivity, reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry and synthesis. Laboratory studies include modern experimental and research techniques for preparing, purifying and identifying organic compounds, and the use of polarimeter, infra-red and ultraviolet spectrometers, NMR, and chromatography. Pre-requisite: CHM 202/ Co-requisite: CHML 303 and CHMW 303
 
CHM/CHML/CHMW 304 Organic Chemistry II
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
The structure, preparation and properties of organic compounds with emphasis on reactivity, reaction mechanisms, stereochemistry and synthesis. Laboratory studies include modern experimental and research techniques for preparing, purifying and identifying organic compounds, and the use of polarimeter, infra-red and ultraviolet spectrometers, NMR, and chromatography. Pre-requisite: CHM 303/ Co-requisite: CHML 304 and CHMW 304/Pre/Co-requisite: MTH 203
 
CHM/CHML 311 Quantitative Analysis
4 credits; 2 class hours; 6 lab hours
 
Basic methods in quantitative analysis; theory and techniques of calorimetric, volumetric, and gravimetric determinations. Instrumental analysis using spectrophotometers, gas chromatograph, and NMR. Co-requisite: CHML 311
 
CHM/CHML 341 Biochemistry
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This course concerning the chemical characteristics of living matter. Topics include general concepts of the cell, biomolecules, carbohydrates, amino acids, peptides, protein structure and function, lipids, enzymes, citric acid cycle and nucleic acids. Laboratory studies include modern experimental and research techniques in Biochemistry. Co-requisite: CHML 341
 
CHM/CHML 405 Advanced Organic Chemistry
5 credits; 3 class hours; 4 lab hours

The well-motivated organic chemistry student is in desperate need of a course that may serve as a transition between undergraduate and graduate organic chemistry. Such a course must be designed to take full advantage of the spirit, energy and enthusiasm that descends upon these students as they near completion of the second half of their undergraduate organic chemistry. This course has a research component. Co-requisite: CHML 405
 
CHM/CHML 421 Inorganic Chemistry
5 credits; 3 class hours; 6 lab hours
 
This is the first of three courses in modern inorganic chemistry. It serves to introduce the challenged student to an ever expanding and important field of chemistry. This new course will involve a detailed discussion of the chemistry of selected `Main Group' elements, Medgar Evers College, CUNY. 191 Department of Physical, Environmental, and Computer Science covering the reactions of the elements and their compounds, as a well as structure and bonding. Students who register for the course must also register for the laboratory part of the course. Co-requisite: CHML 421
 
CHM/CHML 523 Inorganic Chemistry III (Organometallic Chemistry)
5 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This is the third and last of three courses in modem inorganic chemistry. It serves to expose the students to a branch of chemistry which bridges the traditional fields organic and inorganic chemistry. This new course will entail a study of the organometallic chemistry of the first transition series ( 3d ) elements, covering the synthesis, reactions and bonding of selected compounds. Industrially important reactions involving organometallic compounds will be dealt with in detail. Co-requisite: CHML 523
 
CHM 561 Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds
4 credits; 4 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This course is designed to teach the Organic Chemistry student how to identify organic compounds from the complementary information afforded by mass spectra, infrared spectra (I.R.), nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) spectra and ultraviolet (U.V.) spectra. The modern undergraduate chemistry student requires a somewhat modest level of expertise and sophistication in each of these four levels of spectrometry. This course would further prepare students for the techniques and methodologies they would encounter in graduate programs. Pre-requisite: CHM 304
 
CS 100 Internet and Web Technologies
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course provides students with practical knowledge about computer hardware and software, and a basic understanding of the underlying telecommunications technology of the Internet. Students learn to navigate and search the Internet, while exploring numerous research-related web sites using E-mail, FTP, WAIS and Telnet services. After exploring and using HTML to create Web pages, JavaScript is introduced and used for developing client-side applications for Web browsers. These markup and script languages are used to introduce computer programming fundamentals. Students produce a publishable home page or other Web document as their final course project. Co-requisite: MTH 138 or MTH 136 or Higher
 
CS 102 Introduction to Electronic Game Design and Development
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course is a hands-on introduction to Computer Science concepts using the design and development of electronic games as the primary application. Students will be introduced to game environments, architectures and design issues. The course will survey related Computer Science concepts in hardware, software, graphics, human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence. The software component will include high-level programming engines, and introduce both imperative and object-oriented programming. The course will use high-level drag-and-drop programming engines and game scripting languages that can be used to create animations and computer games. Co-requisites: MTH 138 or higher and the completion of all developmental basic skills.
 
CS 140 Computer Science Seminar
3 credit; 3 class hours
 
Computer science seminar is designed to provide incoming students an overview of the field along with specific examples of problem areas and methods of solution. Students learn about the computer science degrees and computing trends. Each section is taught by a computer science faculty member, and will cover issues and opportunities in computer science. Special academic speakers and field trips to professional sites are also included. Students will learn individual and team study skills required for success in a computer science degree program, and professional ethics. Pre-requisite: Completion of all developmental basic skills.
 
CS 151 Introduction to Computing
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course introduces the fundamental concepts of the discipline of computing, emphasizing elementary facts concerning computer architecture, programming languages, software methodology, and algorithms. Students learn how to solve problems using an appropriate block-structure high-level programming language. Programming topics include: basic data structures, control structures, data and procedure abstractions, functions and function parameters, recursion, pointers, classes and file processing. Prerequisite: MTH 151 or higher
 
CS 241 Discrete Structures
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
The objective of this course is to introduce the elements of discrete mathematics systems pertinent to the field of computer science. Through computer programming examples, exercises and case studies, students are taught the following mathematical concepts: sets and binary relations, functions, first-order logic, proof techniques, algebraic systems, graph theory, vectors and matrices, elementary probability theory, combinatorial computing and counting arguments. Definitions and analysis of algorithms are also introduced. Pre-requisite: CS 15l
 
CS 244 Object Oriented Programming and Design
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course presents an object-oriented approach to software development used in large-scale programming projects. A software engineering methodology, such as the Unified Modeling Language (UML), will be used for object, dynamic, and functional modeling. Students learn how to implement a system using an appropriate object oriented programming language. Programming topics include: Classes and data abstraction, operator overloading, inheritance, virtual functions and polymorphisms, templates, exception handling, and class libraries including GUI applications. Pre-requisite: CS 151
 
CS 246 Data Structures and Algorithms
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course introduces the different ways that data is organized and stored in computer memory and the relevant procedures used in the manipulation of that data. The idea of abstract data types (ADTs) is first introduced, and then reinforced through the characterization of fundamental data structures in the discipline - stacks, queues, and trees. Other topics are recursive algorithms, dynamic storage, and complexity. Algorithms for searching and sorting are also implemented. Pre-requisite: CS 244
 
CS 260 Digital Systems
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This course presents the theoretical principles and mathematical techniques involved in the hardware design of digital systems. Topics include: number systems and codes, Boolean algebra, Boolean functions, canonical forms, logic gate realization, universal gates, combinational and sequential circuits, and minimization of functions using Karnaugh maps, the Quine-McCluskey method and basic computer organization. Interactive circuit design software is used for laboratory experiments. Pre-requisite: CS 252
 
CS 265 UNIX Systems Programming
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course provides an in-depth study in the programming of UNIX systems. Topics include: UNIX commands, the UNIX File System and its related structures, Editors, the UNIX Command Interpreter, System Administration, Shell Programming, UNIX Applications Operating environments, communicating and networking through UNIX. Pre-requisite: CS 244
 
CS 280 Artificial Intelligence
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course examines the ideas and techniques underlying the design of intelligent computer systems. Topics include knowledge representation, heuristic versus algorithmic search methods, problem solving, game playing, logical inference, planning, reasoning under uncertainty, expert systems, learning, perception, natural language understanding, and intelligent agents. A functional programming language appropriate to Artificial Intelligence will be introduced. Prerequisite: CS 246
 
CS 281 Data Systems
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course provides the basis for a solid education in the fundamentals of database technology. Topics include Database Management, Database System Architecture, Relational Data Base Systems (Query Languages, Application Development Systems), Software Specific (Self Contained) and Hardware Specific (Data Base Machines). Data manipulation language studied include: SQL, relational calculus, Query-By-Example, and natural languages. Prerequisite:
CS 246
 
CS 300 Theoretical Computer Science
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course focuses on fundamental issues of Computer Science Theory, Automata and Formal Language Theory, and the Theory of Computational Complexity. Topics include formal languages, finite state automata, push down automata, Turing machines and the languages they recognize. This course also examines computability by recursive functions, Church's Thesis, undecidability, the classes P and NP, NP-complete problems and intractable problems. Prerequisite: CS 241
 
CS 302 Algorithms for Bioinformatics
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This is an interdisciplinary course that combines Molecular Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, and Computer Science. It teaches (a) Bioinformatics computer skills, including, but not limited to searching, accessing, and analyzing public biological databases, (b) Applications of statistics to molecular biology, and (c) Bioinformatics algorithms and programming. Pre-requisite: (BIO 101 or BIO 111) and BIO 102 and CS 151 and MTH 202
 
CS 305 Data Communications and Web Technologies
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is designed to provide the students with a fundamental technical and practical background in data communications with the context of network technologies. Topics include fundamental concepts of data communications; data transfer modes; the OSI model; transmission mediums and the physical layers; modems and modem standards; local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs); communications standards including communications codes, application support protocols, and network architecture; and intranet/Internet routers. Pre-requisite: CS 246
 
CS 307 Local and Wide Area Networks
3 credits; 2 class hours; 2 lab hours
 
This course covers computer network analysis and design and its applications. A variety of network topologies for centralized, decentralized and distributed networks will be discussed. Topics include LAN fundamentals, evaluating LAN cabling systems, switching techniques, routing algorithms, flow control, survey and comparison of existing commercial Local Area Networks. Students will learn to configure, install, operate, troubleshoot and administer networks. Co-requisite: CS 305
 
CS 308 Computer and Network Security
3 credit; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course provides students with an understanding of key issues in the field of computer and network security include the role of information security, threats, cryptography, protocols, architectures and technologies for secure systems and services. Pre-requisite: CS 246 and CS 265
 
CS 309 Network Programming
3 credits; 2 class hours; 2 lab hours
 
This course focuses on interconnecting Local Area Networks (LAN) into larger private and public networks including Enterprise and Wide Area Networks (WAN). Topics include network programming with Sockets, TCP/IP protocol stack, server side/client side applications programming. Students will have the opportunity to take Microsoft, Novell and Netscape examinations towards certification as Web Masters. Pre-requisite: CS 305 Medgar Evers College, CUNY . 193 Department of Physical, Environmental, and Computer Science
 
CS 310 Special Topics in Computer Science
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
Courses on contemporary topics in computer science to be offered according to the latest developments in the field and the needs of the students. Students are taught the underlying principles of analysis, design, and implementational issues involved in computing. Several examples and applications are used to illustrate the theory and concepts covered. A detailed description for each special topic offering may be obtained in the Department office prior to registration. Students are also required to submit a research paper on an approved topic. Pre-requisite: CS 246
 
CS 312 Analysis of Algorithms
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course covers measuring algorithmic complexity (ONotation); searching and sorting algorithms and their complexity; tree and graph algorithms and their complexity; classes of algorithms, such as divide-and-conquer, backtracking, greedy, probabilistic, etc. Computational complexity; the classes P and NP. Pre-requisite: CS 246
 
CS 315 Operating Systems
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course is an introduction to operating systems. Topics include task management and scheduling, process and data management, resource allocation, interrupts, time sharing, concurrent processing, linear and tree-structured address space, resource allocation for multiprogramming, and queuing and network control policies. This course includes several detailed case studies that covers today's most widely used single-user, multi-user, and network operating systems. Pre-requisite: CS 246
 
CS 319 Geographical Information Systems
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course examines the automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data. Topics include automated geography, spatial analysis, map as model, GIS data structures, GIS data input, storage and editing, classification, statistical surfaces, spatial arrangements, cartographic modeling, output from analysis, and GIS design and implementation. Prerequisite: CS 151
 
CS 321 Remote Sensing: Computer Methods for Satellite Data Analysis
3 credits; 2 class hours; 2 lab hours
 
This course emphasizes the scientific principles of satellite data analysis and efficiency of computer methods for carrying out this analysis and convert raw data into meaningful physical quantities. Topics include: concepts and systems, electromagnetic energy, photographs from aircraft and satellite, remote sensing in the visible and IR spectrum, active and passive remote sensing, thermal IR images, Earth resources, image processing and interpretation, meteorological, oceanographical and environmental applications, and monitoring natural hazards, geographic information system and overview of scatterometry. Course includes Hands-on demonstrations and data analysis of satellite data. Pre-requisite: CS 151
 
CS 325 Computer Architecture
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
Topics include instruction formats and addressing schemes, arithmetic and logic unit design, control unit design, main memory technology, virtual, high speed, associate and read only memories, programmable logic arrays, computer organization including stack, parallel and pipeline, and system structures: time sharing, multiprocessing and networking. Pre-requisite: CS 260
 
CS 345 Scientific Programming I: Data Analysis
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is an introduction to numerical algorithms for scientific computation. It covers basic concepts of numerical error, interpolation, quadrature, vectors and matrices, solution of linear systems of equations, non-linear equations. Computer implementation aspects are also investigated. Student programming applications will involve real-world datasets from NASA missions, EPA and NOAA using C++ and Java. Prerequisites: CS 246 and MTH 202
 
CS 350 Programming Language Paradigms
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course provides an overview of the key paradigms used in modern programming languages and illustrates those paradigms with several programming languages. It also provides sufficient formal theory to demonstrate the role of programming language design in the context of the general computer science research agenda. Pre-requisite: CS 246
 
CS 355 Mobile Application Development
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course introduces the principles of mobile application development, using the Android platform. Topics will include user interface building, input methods, methods for storing and retrieving information, Internet communication, hardware (GPS, camera, and sensors), multimedia, and mobile security. Projects will be deployed for real-world applications. Course work will include project conception and implementation of mobile phone software applications. Pre-requisites: CS 244, CS 304, CS 265
 
CS 360 Software Engineering
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course introduces students to the phases, methodologies and tools involved in the software production process. Topics include the software life cycle, specifications and design, quality assurance and testing, maintenance as well as related economic aspects in the production of software. Students are also introduced to design and documentation tools utilized by software engineers and issues related to portability and reusability. The course is also an introduction to technical writing. Pre-requisite: CS 246
 
CS 380 Intelligence Systems
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course examines the ideas and techniques underlying the design of intelligent computer systems. Topics include search methods, game playing, knowledge representation, logical reasoning, and reasoning with uncertainty. No prior knowledge of Artificial Intelligence is required. A functional programming language appropriate to Artificial Intelligence will be introduced. Pre-requisite: CS 246, MTH 201, MTH 237

CS 390 Scientific Programming II: Modeling and Simulation
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
Simulation of dynamic, physical systems using models involving numerical and logical processes. Modeling concepts, description in terms of entities, attributes, and activities, time flow mechanisms, queues, event-oriented vs. particle-oriented models. Collection and evaluation of statistics. Simulation languages. Computer projects using a general-purpose language (e.g. C++) and at least one simulation language (e.g. GPSS) will be assigned. Pre-requisite: CS 345
 
CS 392 Advanced Topics in Computer Science
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course investigates the latest developments in the fields of Computer Science, Space Science, Earth Science and/ or Environmental Science. Students are taught the underlying principles, data acquisition and analysis. Several examples and applications are used to illustrate the theory and concepts covered. A detailed description for each special topics offering may be obtained in the Department office prior to registration. Students are required to submit a research paper on an approved topic. Pre-requisite: CS 345
 
CS 401 Computer Science Internship/Research I
3 credits; 6 class hours (minimum)
 
Students are required to participate in an internship or complete a significant research project during their senior year. This research and internship experience must involve project management: planning, scheduling, and production of a computing system. In addition to these technical skills, student should also develop an understanding of the social, ethical and economic considerations of project management. Students are required to attend weekly seminars, write an in-depth report, and give an oral presentation. Pre-requisite: Permission of chairperson
 
CS 402 Computer Science Internship/Research II
3 credits; 6 class hours (minimum)
 
This course is a continuation of CS 401. Pre-requisite: CS 401
 
ENVS 200 Environmental Health Issues
credits; 3 class hours
 
This course provides the basis for understanding the widespread health problems that are linked to environment and occupational concerns. Topics include the identity and sources of air and water pollutants, the spread of these pollutants, and the harmful effects of these pollutants. These responsibilities of those involved with public health and the measures private industry is taking in addressing environmental health concerns is discussed. Special emphasis is given to health problems facing urban communities. Pre-requisite: Completion of math and language developmental skills
 
ENVS 203 Environmental and Occupational Laws
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course introduces the wide range of local, state, regional, federal, and international laws and regulations pertaining to environmental and occupational concerns. How the various governmental agencies interface is discussed, as well as compliance, violations, and penalties. This course also focuses on the federal environmental justice initiative. Pre-requisite: ENVS 200
 
ENVS 301 Air, Water Pollution
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course will provide a detailed outline of the sources and types of air pollutants and the ways in which these pollutants are dispersed. The course will also outline the established national goals for air and water quality needed to protect public health and welfare. This course will also address the topic of indoor air quality. This course will provide a more detailed treatment on the Clean Air Act, as amended, and the Clean Water Act as amended, to which students were previously introduced in the course entitled Environmental and Occupational Laws and Regulations (ENVS 200). Pre-requisites: ENVS 200 and CHM 201
 
ENVS 302 Measurement and Instrumentation
4 credits; 2 class hours; 6 lab hours
 
This course includes numerous laboratory exercises that familiarize students with methods of air, water and soil monitoring to determine the concentration levels of airborne, waterborne and soil contaminants. This course will stress the guidelines established by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, the New York State Department of Environmental Protection, the Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, for analyzing, documenting and reporting air and water pollutants. Instruments include HPLC, TOC, GC/MS, UV-vis-IR & AA spectrophotometry and FTIR. Prerequisites: ENVS 301 and CHM 311
 
ENVS 304 Epidemiology
3 credits; 3 hours
 
This is an introduction course to epidemiology. It will familiarize students with the basic principles in epidemiology. These principles or epidemiologic methods will be means by which to describe, analyze, and interpret data related to public health issues in the general population. The course will also present epidemiology application to the fields of health services, community health education, and diet, food and nutrition. Pre-requisites: BIO 261
 
ENVS 313 Waste Management
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
The main objective of this course is to present a very detailed account on collection, treatment, and disposal of solid waste, waste water, and hazardous waste. The course will also draw attention to the improved technology on which the waste generator must rely as land becomes more limited and regulations increase. The course touches upon the causes and effects of the three basic types of waste: solid waste, waste water and hazardous waste. The treatment and reuse of water is also addressed. In the United States, the management of hazardous waste is significantly regulated. This course addresses the subjects of direct hazardous waste treatment, categorical remedial action requirements, and low level radioactive waste handling. Pre-requisites: ENVS 200 and ENVS 302 Medgar Evers College, CUNY . 195
 
ENVS 319 Geographical Information Systems
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course examines the automated systems for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial data. Topics include automated geography, spatial analysis, map as model, GIS data structures, GIS data input, storage and editing, classification, statistical surfaces, spatial arrangements, cartographic modeling, output from analysis, and GIS design and implementation. Prerequisite: CS 151
 
ENVS 320 Toxicology of Environmental and Industrial Agents
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
A introduction to the principles of toxicology, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and effects of toxic chemicals such as pesticides, metals, chemical carcinogens, air, water, and soil pollutants, radiation and industrial solvents. Hazardous waste and consumer products. Pre-requisite: ENVS 304
 
ENVS 390 Special Topics on the Environment
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course is designed to facilitate timely incorporation of current environmental issues, particularly issues that may have a disproportionate impact on urban communities. . The course will therefore focus on initiatives such as green businesses, green construction, green communities, and green buildings stressing at all times their connection to environmental sustainability and energy efficiency. The course will further outline the significance of green certification as it applies to businesses, products and professions. Pre-requisite: ENGL 211
 
ENVS 400 Natural Resource, Conservation and Management
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course is designed to provide the interdisciplinary perspective that is required for devising solutions to today's many natural resource management problems. This course will outline the efforts of Americans and people worldwide to conserve natural resources. The course also touches on the many successes and failures of policies, laws, organizations, conservation, and protection of our natural resources. Pre-requisites: ENVS 200 and ENVS 203
 
ENVS 401 Ground Water
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course will outline the scientific foundations for the study of groundwater and the technical foundations for the development of groundwater resources. The course will also address the subject of groundwater contamination and the growth of groundwater technology. Pre-requisite: MTH 204 Department of Physical, Environmental, and Computer Science
 
ENVS 404 Internship
3 credits; 3-6 class hours
 
For the final semester, students are required to work at least three hours per week with an environmental concern providing one of the following services: Air Quality and Pollution Control, Energy Development, Conservation, and Recovery, Environmental and Ecology Studies, Environmental Impact Analyses, Facility Operation and Management, Hazardous and Toxic Waste Management, Industrial Waste Control and Treatment, Human Settlements and Environmental issues, Laboratory Services, Marine Waste Disposal and Nearshore Oceanography, Regional Water Pollution Control Planning, Sewage Treatment and Disposal, Sludge Handling and Disposal, Solid Waste Management, Storm Drainage and Flood Control, Water Supply, Treatment and Distribution, and finally, Research. Pre-requisites: ENVS 313, CHM 303 and CHM 311
 
ENVS 405 Pollution Control and Prevention
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course focuses on the rapidly developing new technology for the control of pollutants. It therefore provides very detailed discussion on such topics as source and emission controls. The course will draw attention to the following subjects: particulate and gas controls for stationary and mobile sources of air quality, and water treatment. The only effective way to prevent air pollution is to prevent the release of pollutants at the source. This course will outline modifications on combustion and the technology for the treatment of industrial exhaust gases before they are released into the atmosphere will also be addressed. Pre-requisites: ENVS 301 and ENVS 303
 
ENVS 413 Field Study
3 credits; 9 class hours
 
In this course students will be required to plan, complete and report on actual environmental projects. Environmental projects may be drawn from the following examples: the pollution of beaches, parks and other recreational facilities in New York City and surrounding areas, illegal dump sites, the stock piles, and abandoned sites in New York City; the level of compliance of small businesses in central Brooklyn with federal, state, and local environmental and occupational laws; the effectiveness of New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) in poor neighborhoods; pollution and contamination linked to businesses operation in central Brooklyn, and finally the compliance of area residents with new recycling laws. Students will be taught how to design and implement projects and how to prepare environmental reports. Three to four students will be assigned to each environmental project. Pre-requisites: ENVS 302 and ENVS 400
 
PHS 101 Introduction to Physical Sciences
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course is designed to study the basic laws that govern the universe and how these laws are revealed to us. The topics covered include motion, atoms energy, forces, the interaction of atoms, the physical properties of substances, and the study of objects in the universe. Laboratory exercises are an integral part. Lectures are supplemented by demonstrations and hands-on experiments. Visits to scientific museums and centers are required. Pre-requisites: Completion Math and Language Basic Skills
 
PHS 201 Research Methods and Laboratory Instrumentation
2 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course is an introduction to the nature of scientific investigation and the skills needed to develop a research problem. Topics include the scientific process, research design, library and computer resources for literature review, analysis and presentation of data, use of computer for communications and data analysis, and the theory, design and operation of laboratory instrumentation. Co-requisites: CS 241 or CHM 201 or PHY 211
 
PHS 203 Atmospheric Science (Meteorology)
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is an introduction to the principles and phenomena of the atmosphere, weather and climate. Topics include clouds, sky color, greenhouse effect, precipitation, storms, hurricanes, storm tracks, climates and the Ice Ages, weather analysis and forecasting. Prerequisites: PHY 212 and CHM 201
 
PHS 205 Ocean Science (Oceanography)
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
Course Description: This course is an introduction to the basic concepts of the hydrosphere. Topics include: bathymetric features, origin of the hydrosphere, sea-level changes, wave formation, temperature, salinity, and density of the ocean, and principles governing atmosphere-coast-ocean interactions. Pre-requisites: PHY 212 and CHM 201/Pre/Co-requisite: MTH 202
 
PHS 221 Introduction to Telecommunications
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is an introduction to the essentials of the transmission of information. Topics include historical development, basics of data transmission, audio, structural and pictorial information; use of computers in transmission, coding and decoding; technical aspects of cable, telephone, radio, television, satellite and fiber optics, storage and retrieval of data; computer networks, synchronous and asynchronous transmission, modems and interfaces, analog and digital switching. Pre-requisites: PHY 114 or CS 151
 
PHS 301 Special Topics in Climate and Planets
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course examines topics of current interest in the field of atmospheric science and planetary sciences, which are not covered in the regular curriculum. Topics vary from semester to semester, and reflect the interest of students and faculty. The course description may be obtained in the department office prior to registration. Issues examined may include storms and storm tracking, cloud structures, planetary atmospheres, meteorology, fluid dynamics and turbulence, atmospheric environmental changes. Pre-requisites: PHY 212 and CHM 202
 
PHS 306 Hydrology
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This course emphasizes the interaction of various processes in the hydrologic cycle. Topics include precipitation, stream flow, evaporation, run-off, the occurrence of ground water, concepts of ground water flow, equations for ground water flow and an introduction to modeling ground water systems. Pre-requisite: PHY 212
 
PHS 331 Special Topics in Telecommunications
3 credits; 3 class hours
 
This course covers contemporary topics in telecommunications to be offered according to the interest of faculty members and students. The course description may be obtained in the Department office prior to registration. Independent study and seminars are required. Students are also required to submit a paper on an approved topic. Pre-requisite: Permission of chairperson
 
PHS 401/402/403 Independent Research I, II, III
3 credits each; 10 class hours each
 
Students are engaged in a minimum of nine (9) hours of conference and independent research per week. Library and computer or laboratory investigation of a problem in the Physical Sciences, Computer Science or Environmental Sciences, which is selected by the Department and pursued under the guidance of a faculty mentor in the Department. Students will present research (oral and/or poster presentations) at Department, CUNY-Wide or national seminars; in addition students will submit a written report of the research carried out. Only three of these credits may be applied to the Bachelors degree. Pre-requisites: Completion of 48 credits towards degree, and completion of courses appropriate to the research project as determined by the faculty mentor and permission of chairperson
 
PHY 114 Basic Physics
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 lab hour
 
This is a one semester survey course covering the fundamentals of Physics. Emphasis will be placed on the basic concepts and meaning of physical laws. Topics include force, vectors, velocity and acceleration, Newton's laws of motion, gravitation, work and energy, thermal energy, electrostatics, electric current, magnetism, atomic structure of matter, and wave phenomena. Co-requisite: MTH 151
 
PHY/PHYL 205 Introduction to Physics I
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This is the introductory course in physics designed for students majoring in the biological sciences. The course includes the basic laws of mechanics, energy and momentum conservation, and thermal properties of matter. Pre-requisites: MTH 151 and PHY 114/ Co-requisite: PHYL 205
 
PHY/PHYL 206 Introduction to Physics II
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This is the continuation of the introductory course in physics designed for students majoring in the biological sciences. Topics include properties and propagation of sound, wave motion, light and fundamental concepts of electrical phenomena, electrostatics, electric circuits, electromagnetism, and a.c. circuits. Pre-requisite: PHY 205/Co-requisite: PHYL 206
 
PHY/PHYL/PHYW 211 University Physics I
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
This course is the first part of the four semester calculus physics sequence. Topics include vectors, kinematics and dynamics of particles, work, energy conservation, linear and angular momentum conservation, rotational kinematics and dynamics, harmonic motion and fluid statics and dynamics. Pre-requisite: PHY 114/Co-requisite: MTH 202/Pre/Co-requisite: PHYL 211 and PHYW 211 

Department of Physical, Environmental, and Computer Science
Medgar Evers College, CUNY . 197
 
PHY/PHYL/PHYW 212 University Physics II
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
This course is the second part of the four semester calculus physics sequence. Topics include gravitation, special relativity, heat, laws of thermodynamics, kinetic theory, entropy, plane and spherical waves, sound, geometric optics, light, interference, diffraction and polarization. Pre-requisite: PHY 211/Co-requisite: MTH 203/Pre/Corequisite: PHYL 212 and PHYW 212
 
PHY/PHYL/PHYW 213 University Physics III
4 credits; 3 class hours; 3 lab hours; 1.5 workshop hours
 
This course is the third part of the four semester calculus physics sequence. Topics include electrostatics, electric potential and fields, Gauss's law, dielectrics, current, moving charge, magnetic fields, circuits, fields in matter, Maxwell's equations, electromagnetic waves and spectrum. Pre-requisite: PHY 211/Co-requisite: MTH 203/Pre/ Co-requisite: PHYL 213 and PHYW 213
 
PHY 303 Modern Physics
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is the final part of the four semester calculus physics sequence. Topics include special and general relativity, photoelectric effect, black-body radiation, quantum effects, Bohr atom model, quantum theory, many electron atom, X-rays, atomic spectra, nuclear structure, and nuclear reactions. Pre-requisites: PHY 212 and PHY 213/Co-requisite: MTH 204
 
PHY/PHYL 309 Electronics
4 credits; 4 class hours; 3 lab hours
 
This course is an introduction to analog and digital electronics for students of the natural sciences with emphasis on modern electronic instrumentation. Experiments include use of function generators, power supplies, operational amplifiers, transducers, programmable analog switching, solid state amplifiers and switches, logic gates, flip-flops, latches, registers, counters, digital devices and signals, introduction to microcomputers, interfacing, microprocessors, and signal processing and noise reduction techniques. Pre-requisite: PHY 212/Pre/Co-requisite: PHYL 309
 
PHY 315 Introduction to Astrophysics
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is an introduction to modern astrophysical problems with an emphasis on the physical concepts involved: radio, optical and x-ray astronomy; the solar system; stellar structure and evolution; white dwarfs, pulsars and black holes; galactic structure and evolution, quasars; gravitation and cosmology. Pre-requisite: PHY 303
 
PHY 351 Electromagnetic Theory
3 credits; 4 class hours
 
This course is a comprehensive study of electromagnetism. Topics include electric field and potential, Gauss' law, electrostatic potential energy, Laplace's equation, boundary value methods, electric dipole and multipoles, electric fields in matter, dielectric theory, magnetic field and potential, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, inductance, electric fields from time-varying magnetic fields, magnetic fields in matter, Maxwell's equations, Poynting's theorem, wave equation for vector and scalar potentials, plane wave propagation, wave guides and radiation. Pre-requisites: PHY 212, PHY 213 and MTH 204/Pre/Corequisite: MTH 202
 
PHY 355 Gravitation and Cosmology
3 credits; 3 class hours; 1 recitation hour
 
This course is a comprehensive study of classical dynamics of particles and systems. Topics include Newtonian mechanics of single particle, oscillations, nonlinear oscillations, gravitation, motion of moon and planets, Ergodic theorem, Kepler and elliptic motion, Euler's equation, Hamilton's principle, Lagrangian mechanics, Hamiltonian mechanics, central force motion, dynamics of a system of particles, motion in a noninerial reference system, rigid bodies, coupled oscillations, continuous systems and waves, special relativity theory. Pre-requisites: PHY 351 or PHY 315 or MTH 324 or MTH 358