MEDGAR EVERS COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK
Department of Physical Sciences and Computer Science Course
Syllabus for Quantitative Analysis (CHM 311 and CHML 311)
Course Title: Quantitative Analysis (CHM 311) and Quantitative Analysis laboratory
Instructor: Dr. Wilbert W. Hope, Office C410
Office hours: Wed. 1: 00 pm to 300 pm
Textbook: Modern Analytical Chemistry by David Harvey: McGraw Hill, 2000.
Goals and Objectives
A. Content Goals
1 To expose students to the ramifications of making Quantitative Analysis.
2 Understanding/Mastering the theory and practice of Gravimetric, Volumetric,
Spectrophotometric and Electrochemical Methods; detailed study of;
θGravimetry and Titrimetry (including pipetting and dilutions).
θStatistics (Calibration curve, linear regression, etc.),
θAqueous solution equilibrium
3 To Introduce students to the theory and practice of gas chromatography (GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
4 To show that the need to determine lower and lower levels of analyte concentrations on small and smaller amounts of samples pushes the development of new and improved instruments.
5 To further our understanding of the nature of air pollution in ambient and indoor atmosphere.
B. Research Process Goals
6. Increase appreciation for and understanding of the evolution of analytical methods from classical to instrumental methods.
7. Understanding matrix effect and the importance of eliminating interferences.
8. To develop the skills required for the Application of statistics to data treatment and analysis.
9. To expose students to techniques of air sampling and analysis.
10. To inculcate in students the value of the team-approach to research and problem solving.
C. Basic Process Objectives
11. Steps typical of quantitative analysis
13. Develop technical writing skills.
14. Application of mathematical skills to solve problems.
This course is concerned with the basic methods in and the skills required for quantitative analysis. The theory and techniques of calorimetric, volumetric, gravimetric, and spectroscopic determinations will be emphasized. Students will also be introduced to the gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Pre-requisite: CHM 202
Each week, there will be two hours of lecture/discussion and six hours of laboratory work, split between two days, Wednesdays and Fridays. One hour of class work will be followed by three hours laboratory work on Wednesdays and Fridays.
CHM 311- Chemical principles governing quantitative analyses will be explored, starting with a review of stoichiometry. Topics, including Chemical Equilibrium, Potentiometry, Spectroscopy and Chromatography will be discussed in general and in relation to the quantitative determinations of chemical pollutants. Your grade for this part of the course will be based on your performance on two class tests, homework assignments, and a final examination.
CHML 311- your laboratory exercises consists of classical laboratory experiments and a small research project. The first six to seven weeks will be devoted to classical laboratory experiments while the other seven (7) weeks will be devoted to assigned projects. Group study will be encouraged however; the individual student must complete his or her own written report for grading. Forty percent (40%) of your laboratory grade will be earned from project for which both a written and an oral (class presentation) report will be assessed.
Brief on Urban Air
Particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) constitute complex mixtures of air-borne pollutants. They are emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic sources are mainly through fossil fuel burning by electrical utilities, industries and motor vehicles. In the urban atmosphere, concentrations of particles are more than 50% greater than that for rural or so-called clean suburban atmosphere. Transportation and other fuel combustion processes account for 62.9% of PM10 from traditionally inventoried sources and 39.6% of all the VOCI3. The Brooklyn area is subjected to 980 tons of VOC annually, according to the New York Source Count Report. How do these estimates relate to the quality of the air individuals in the inner city communities breath?
Mortality and morbidity due to asthma and other lung diseases in the inner cities are above the national average. These increases are linked to higher levels of ambient and indoor air pollution. Inhalation of fine particles (PMI0), ozone, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, VOC's, and other chemical agents have all shown to worsen asthma and increase bronchial hyperactivity. A large portion of outdoor-aerosols penetrate indoors and are trapped, causing indoor-air pollution levels to be greater than outdoors. Moreover, inner city residents spend 80 to 90 percent of their time indoor.
Atmospheric aerosols also affect global and regional climatic conditions. Particles in the troposphere scatter solar radiation, trap greenhouse thermal radiation, alter the amount of light reflected by the earth, and increase the stability and brightness of the clouds. In addition atmospheric aerosols also contribute to acid rains, and visibility impairment 11.
Lecture/Discussion Schedule (CHM 311)
1 General Introduction
-Quantitative vs Qualitative Analysis
-Steps in Quantitative Analysis
- Stoichiometric calculations
2 Errors and Statistics
Calibration and standardization
Acid-base reactions, pH
4 Chemical Equilibrium
Coulommetric and Voltametric Methods
7 & 8Spectroscopic Methods
UV-vis, IR and AA
9Sample collection and preparation
Extraction and separation
13Developing Standard Methods