INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Ebere U. Nduka. OFFICE: C324A. Tel.718 270 6211
Mon. 12 noon- 1.00 pm; 4.00-5.00 pm
Wed. 12 noon- 1.00 pm; 4.00-5.00pm.
Homeostatic regulation involves coordinating activities of organs and systems throughout
the body. The function of the endocrine system involves complex interrelationships and
interactions that maintain dynamic steady states. The course will study the endocrine
system and its hormonal impact on metabolic activities of various tissues. The
interrelationships between the endocrine system and the nervous system will be studied.
The laboratory component will allow each student to have hands–on experience with
techniques that include, Solution Preparations, Solution chemistry, Hormonal Assay
Methods, Histology of Endocrine Glands, Experiments on Hormonal Actions.
PREREQUISITES: BIO 202 and CHEM 202 or by the permission of the
Student’s final grade will be determined as follows:
||Class tests and quizzes
The Lecture will contain at least 3 tests, a number of quizzes and a term paper.
The Lab will contain a midterm, final and quizzes. Attendance is required in both lecture
and lab. A dissection kit and lab coat are required for lab. IT IS THE POLICY OF THE DEPARTMENT NOT TO OFFER MAKE-UP EXAMS OR QUIZZES.
||Introduction to Endocrinology.
Organization of the Endocrine System-Overview
of the Endocrine System. Endocrine Glands and
Hormones. Structure and Classification.
||Synthesis and Secretion of Hormones.
-Control of Hormone Secretion-Feedback mechanisms.
-Hormone Circulation and Metabolism.
||Physiological Roles of Hormones.
-General mechanisms of Hormone Action.
||Assessment of Endocrine Function.
-Surgical Methods. Hormone deficiency.
-Hormone Replacement Therapy.
-Immunological Neutralization of Hormone
-Tissue Extracts and Purification.
-Immuno assays(Radioisotope Studies)
-Radioisotope Enzyme assay.
||Hormone Measurements and Assessment Contd.
||The Pituitary Gland
-Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary.
-Control of the Adenohypophysis
-Pulsatile Release of Hormones
-Classification of Endocrine disorders
-Luteinizing Hormones/Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Posterior Pituitary Gland
Antidiuretic Hormone ADH
||Structure and Function of the Endocrine Hypothalamus.
The Hypophysiotropic Hormones.
-MSH Releasing-Inhibiting Factor(MIF).
Pathophysiology of Hypothalamic Dysfunction.
-Anatomy and Histology of the thyroid
-Thyroid Hormones Secretion
-Thyroid Hormone Transport
-Pathologic Conditions Involving The Thyroid
Diabetes- Insulin-Dependent and Non-Insulin Dependent
Pathologies of Adrenal Medulla
Pathologies of Adrenal Cortex
||Hormones and Female Reproductive Physiology.
-Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System.
-Ovarian Steroid Hormones.
Environment and Reproduction.
||Endocrinology of Pregnancy.
-Parturition and Lactation.
-Oviparity, Ovoviparity, and Viviparity.
-Fertilization and Implantation.
-The Corpus Luteum.
-The Fetal-Placental Unit.
-Neuroendocrine Control of Parturition.
||Hormones and Male Reproductive Physiology.
-Anatomy of The Male Reproductive System.
-Sources, Synthesis, Chemistry, and Metabolism of
-Endocrine Control of Testicular Function.
-GnRH and Pituitary Gonadotropins.
-Physiological Roles of Androgens.
-Hormones and Homosexuality.
-Secondary Sex Characteristics.
Physiological Roles of Estrogen.
-Mechanisms of Androgen Action.
|LABORATORY SESSION 1
|Laboratory Safety, The Location of Endocrine Glands
|LABORATORY SESSION 2
|Basic Laboratory Procedures
Preparation of Solutions.
Preparation of Dilutions.
Making a single Dilution.
Preparing a Dilution Series.
Linear Dilution Series.
|LABORATORY SESSION 3
|Logarithmic Dilution Series.
Harmonic Dilution Series.
Mixing Solutions and Suspensions.
Storing Chemicals and Solutions.
Using Chemical Balances.
|LABORATORY SESSION 4
|Histology of Endocrine Glands.
Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal and Pancreas.
|LABORATORY SESSION 5
|Experiments on Hormonal Action.
Determining The Effect of Thyroid Hormone on
Metabolic Rate./Testing The Effect of Epinephrine on The Heart.
|LABORATORY SESSION 6
|Assay of Hormones.
|LABORATORY SESSION 7
|Assay of Hormones.
|LABORATORY SESSION 8
|Histology of The Pituitary Gland.
Experiment :Determining The Effect of Pituitary Hormones on The Ovary.
|LABORATORY SESSION 9
|Experiment on Hormonal Action.
Observing The Effects of Hyperinsulinism.
|LABORATORY SESSION 10
|Histology of The Ovary.
|LABORATORY SESSION 11
|LABORATORY SESSION 12
|Histology of The Testis
THE LOCATION OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS
- LOCATION OF THE GLANDS
- PRINCIPAL HORMONES SECRETED BY THE GLANDS.
- FUNCTIONS OF THE HORMONES.
ENDOCRINE GLANDS:are organs that secrete chemical messengers(regulators)
known as HORMONES, into the body’s circulatory system. The release of hormones
directly into the blood circulatory system does not require ducts-so it is a ductless
secretion.. Other glands that secrete their materials through tubules or ducts, e.g.
Salivary or sweat glands are known as EXOCRINE GLANDS.
Some glands have both endocrine and exocrine cells. A good example is the PANCREAS
In the Pancreas the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secrete the hormone INSULIN, while
ACINI CELLS secrete PANCREATIC JUICE, which travels via the pancreatic duct to
the small intestine as a digestive enzyme to take part in food digestion. Some refer to it as
A HETEROCRINE GLAND.
Some organs whose primary function may not be the secretion of hormones may contain
endocrine tissue, e.g. Heart and Kidney.
This Exercise will involve mainly the Location of the Endocrine Glands.
You will be handed a Diagram in this exercise that will indicate the major endocrine
glands, organs containing endocrine tissue and some structures associated with some
During this laboratory exercise you will be provided with charts showing Human
Endocrine Glands Locations, and if available Human Torso Models.
Using the charts and models, complete the labels on the diagram provided.
1 PINEAL GLAND.(EPIPHYSIS CEREBRI)
The pineal gland is part of the epithalamus(Look in the area of the Diencephalon).
It is located in the roof of the third ventricle. It is a cone-shaped body lying between
the corpora quadrigemina and the posterior portion of the corpus callosum.
The pineal gland begins as a relatively large structure but atrophys(shrinks) as
puberty approaches and by adult becomes less glandular in appearance.
Using your Textbook as a reference, give the major functions of the hormones listed
2. THYMUS GLAND
The Thymus gland is a bilobed gland located in the upper mediastinum posterior
to the sternun and anterior to the heart and lungs. The gland is conspicuous in
infants, reaching its maximum size at puberty and by old age it is relatively
inconspicuous. The Thymus is also part of the lymphatic system.
Using your textbook as a reference, give the major function of the hormone
3. PITUITARY GLAND (HYPOPHYSIS)
The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain, within the hypophysial fossa
of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone. It is attached to the hypothalamus of the
brain by a stalk-like structure the infundibulum.
The pituitary is divided structurally and functionally into an ANTERIOR
PITUITARY also known as ADENOHYPOPHYSIS and a POSTERIOR
PITUITARY also known as NEUROHYPOPHYSIS.
The Hypothalamus I not only an important regulatory center in the nervous system
it is also an important endocrine gland. Cells in the hypothalamus synthesize at
least nine different hormones, and the pituitary gland secretes seven more. All
these hormones together play important roles in regulation of virtually all aspects
of growth, development, metabolism and homeostasis.
Using your textbook as a reference, give the major functions of the hormones
listed below that are secreted by the Pituitary gland.
A. Pituitary Hormones Secreted by The Anterior Pituitary
Following stimulation from the hypothalamus by releasing hormones or releasing
factors. The anterior pituitary gland secretes the following Hormones:
- Adrencorticotropic Hormone(ACTH)
- Follicle-Stimulating Hormone(FSH)
- Human Growth Hormone(hCG) also known as Somatotropin and Somatotrophic hormone(STH)
- Luteinizing Hormone(LH)
- Melanocyte_Stimulating Hormone(MSH)
- Prolactin(PRL) also known as Lactogenic Hormone
- Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone(TSH) also known as Thyrotropin
B. Hormones stored in the Posterior Pituiatry
- Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH) also known as Vasopressin
4. THYROID GLAND.
The Thyroid gland is located just below the larynx. The right and left lateral lobes
lie on either side of the trachea and are connected by a mass of tissue called an
isthmus, that lies in front of the trachea just below the cricoid cartilage. When
present the pyramidal lobe extends upward from the isthmus.
Using your textbook as reference give the major functions of hormones secreted
by the thyroid gland
5. PARATHYROID GLANDS
These glands are usually four in number and are located on the posterior surface
Of the thyroid glands., two on each lobe.
Using your textbook as a reference give the major function of the Hormone
produced by the Parathyroid Gland.
The hormone is Parathormone, or Parathyroid Hormone (PTH).
6. ADRENAL (SUPERENAL) GLANDS
The two adrenal (Superenal) glands are superior to each kidney and each is
structurally and functionally differentiated into two regions; the outer adrenal
cortex, which forms the bulk of the gland, and the inner adrenal medulla .
Covering the gland are a thick layer of fatty tissue and an outer, thin fibrous
Using your textbook as a reference give the major functions of the Hormones of
the Adrenal Cortex. These include:
Adrogens (in Male)
Hormones secreted by the Adrenal Medulla include
- Norepinephrine (NE)
The pancreas is a single organ located posterior to the stomach and between the
stomach and the duodenum. It is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland.
The hormones are secreted by clusters of specialized cells, called the ISLETS OF
LANGERHANS, located outside the pancreatic tubules. They contain four types
- Alpha cells----------secrete glucagon.
- Beta cells------------secrete insulin.
- Delta cells-----------secrete growth hormone-inhibiting hormone factor(GHIH) or Somatostatin
- F-cells---------------secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
Using your textbook as reference give the major functions of hormone secreted by the Pancreas.
- GROWTH HORMONE INHIBITING HORMONE
- PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE.
The paired ovaries are the primary reproductive organs of the female and are
located in the pelvic region of the body cavity. They have two types of hormoneproducing
tissue. The hormone Estrogen is secreted by the cells of the Graafian
follicle and Progesterone by the cells of the corpus luteum.
Using your textbook as reference give the major functions of the Ovary.
|Graafian Follicle secretes
|Corpus Luteun secretes
||Progesterone, Estrogens, Relaxin, and Inhibin.
The paired testes are the primary reproductive organs of the male. They lie outside
the body cavity within a pouch of skin called the scrotum. They develop in the
embryo’s pelvic region and descend into the scrotum before birth. The lower
temperature in the scrotum facilitates sperm development.
The hormone- producing cells of the testis are located outside the seminiferous
tubules and are called interstitial(Leydig )cells.
The endocrine function of the testis is testosterone production and the exocrine
Exocrine function is the production of spermatozoa.
ORGANS THAT ARE NOT PRIMARY ENDOCRINE BUT HAVE ENDOCRINE FUNCTIONS:
- HEART: The atria of the heart secretes a hormone. Hormone produced –Atrial Natriuretic Peptide(ANP).
- KIDNEYS (AND LIVER TO A LESSER EXTENT).
Release an enzyme called RENAL ERYTHROPOIETIC FACTOR. This is secreted into the blood where it acts on a plasma protein produced in the liver to form a hormone called ERYTHROPOIETIN, which stimulates red bone marrow to produce more red blood cells.
Vitamin D produced by the skin in the presence of sunlight, is converted
to its active hormone, CALCITRIOL , in the kidneys and liver.
- THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT:
The gastrointestinal tract(GIT) synthesizes several hormones that regulate
digestion in the stomach and small intestine.
Hormones secreted include Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin(CCK), and
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide(GIP)
- THE PLACENTA;
The placenta produces human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG), estrogens,
progesterone, relaxin, and human chorionic somatomammotrophin(hCS)
all of which are related to pregnancy.
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